ACCESS TO THE REGISTRY
BALANCING AREAS
CLEARING AND SETTLEMENT
COMPLIANT METERS
CONNECTION AND DISCONNECTION
CONSUMER COMPLAINTS RESOLUTION SYSTEM
CONSUMER CONSUMPTION INFORMATION
CONSUMER OVERVIEW
CUSTOMER COMPENSATION SCHEME
CUSTOMER CONTRACTS
CUSTOMER SERVICE LINES
DAILY INFORMATION TO GRID OWNER
DISITRBUTOR ICP SWITCHING
DISPATCH-CAPABLE LOAD STATION
DISPATCHABLE LOAD PURCHASERS AUDIT
DISTRIBUTED GENERATION
DISTRIBUTOR AUDITS
EIEPS
ELECTRICAL CONN AND ELECTRICAL DISCONN
ELECTRICITY LEVY
ELECTRICITY QUALITY
ELECTRICITY SUPPLIED
EMI
FINANCIAL TRANSMISSION RIGHTS (FTRS)
GENERATION CONNECTION CONTRACTS
GENERATION DISPATCH
GETTING STARTED
HEDGE MARKET DISCLOSURE
HEDGE MARKETS
INDUSTRY BODIES
INSTALLATION CONTROL POINTS ICPS
INTER-PARTICIPANT RESTRICTIONS
LED STREETLIGHTS
LOSS FACTORS
LOW FIXED CHARGE TARIFFS
MAINTAINING INFORMATION ON THE REGISTRY
MARKET BIDS AND OFFERS
MARKET INFORMATION DISCLOSURE
MEDICALLY DEPENDENT AND VULNERABLE CUSTOMERS
MEP ICP SWITCHING PROCESS
METER COMPLIANCE
METER READING COMPLIANCE
METERING EQUIPMENT PROVIDER AUDITS
METERING PROVISION
NETWORK INVOICING
NETWORK OUTAGES
NETWORK PRICING
NETWORK SUPPLY POINT NSP
OFFERS
POINT OF CONNECTION INFORMATION
PROFILES
PRUDENTIAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS
RECONCILIATION
RECONCILIATION AUDITS
RECONCILIATION CERTIFICATION
RECONCILIATION PROCESS
RECONCILIATION SUBMISSIONS
RECONCILIATION WEB PORTAL
REGISTER AS A PARTICIPANT
REGISTRY DATA HUB
REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
RETAIL PRICING
RETAILER CREDIT MANAGEMENT
SERVICE PROVIDER RELATIONSHIPS
SPOT MARKET EXPECTATION ON RETAILERS
STATISTICAL SAMPLING
STRESS TESTING
SWITCH SAVE PROTECTION
TEST HOUSE APPROVAL
TEST HOUSE AUDITS
TRADE NOTIFICATION
TRADER DEFAULT
TRADER ICP SWITCHING
TRADER NSP SWITCHING PROCESS
TYPES OF CONSUMER
TYPES OF GENERATORS
TYPES OF METERS AND INSTALLATIONS
TYPES OF NETWORKS
TYPES OF RETAILERS
TYPES OF TEST HOUSES
UNACCOUNTED FOR ELECTRICITY UFE
UNMETERED LOAD
USE OF SYSTEM AGREEMENTS
WHOLESALE MARKET INFORMATION DISCLOSURE
WHOLESALE PRICES
WITS
Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 99 [title] => MEUG - Major Electricity Users’ [description] => The industry lobby group representing major electricity users. ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 94 [title] => MACQS - Multilateral Agreement f [description] => The agreement that, until 1 March 2004, governed common quality standards. ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 95 [title] => MARIA - Metering and Reconciliat [description] => The agreement that, until 1 March 2004, governed all aspects of the metering, registry and reconciliation process under bilateral trading arrangements. ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 87 [title] => Jade Software Corporation NZ Ltd [description] => Jade Software Corporation NZ Ltd is the service provider contracted by the Authority to manage the registry database. ) [4] => Array ( [id] => 78 [title] => HVDC - high voltage direct curre [description] => The HVDC link is the high voltage transmission cable that transports electricity in both directions between the North and South Islands. ) [5] => Array ( [id] => 63 [title] => Frequency-keeping reserve or fre [description] => An ancillary service that keeps the frequency of the grid within its normal band. The frequency-keeping station increases or decreases generation within a set band to ensure that supply equals demand on a second-by-second basis. ) [6] => Array ( [id] => 64 [title] => FTR - financial transmission rig [description] => A financial risk management product that protects against price risks arising from transmission losses and constraints. ) [7] => Array ( [id] => 27 [title] => Competition, reliability and eff [description] => Components of the Authority’s statutory objective. ) [8] => Array ( [id] => 108 [title] => NZEM - New Zealand Electricity M [description] => The multi-party trading arrangement under which, until 1 March 2004, the majority of New Zealand’s wholesale electricity was bought and sold. ) [9] => Array ( [id] => 96 [title] => Market operation service provide [description] => There are eight market operation service providers engaged in the operation of the electricity market. The Authority performs the role of market administrator and contracts other parties to provide the remaining seven services: system operator, reconciliation manager, information system provider, clearing manager, FTR manager, pricing manager, registry. ) [10] => Array ( [id] => 140 [title] => SCADA - supervisory control and [description] => The systems used by networks to collect and display information on how their system is operating on a moment-by-moment basis. ) [11] => Array ( [id] => 156 [title] => The Electricity Networks Associa [description] => The organisation that represents the interests of the electricity lines companies. ) [12] => Array ( [id] => 147 [title] => SOO - Statement of Opportunities [description] => The Electricity Commission published statements of opportunities (SOO) to enable the identification of potential opportunities for efficient management of the grid, including investment in upgrades and in transmission alternatives. The most recent edition of the SOO was published in 2010. Publication ceased at the time the Electricity Commission was disestablished. ) [13] => Array ( [id] => 154 [title] => Structure, conduct and performan [description] => Structure, conduct and performance is an organising framework for thinking about influence on market performance. It starts from the idea that the structure of the market determines the conduct of participants. This conduct drives outcomes. In the context of competition, it follows that the more competitive the structure, the more competitive the conduct of participants and the more efficient their performance. This is a useful framework for considering reliability and efficiency because it underscores the need to take account of the context in which industry participants conduct themselves as well as the outcomes that their conduct produces. The SCP framework has the benefit of emphasising that outcomes are a function of a range of related influences and actions and thus no single measure provides definitive information on market performance. ) [14] => Array ( [id] => 160 [title] => UOSA - use of system agreement [description] => Agreements that cover retailers’ arrangements with distributors for local distribution services. These can be interposed or conveyance agreements. ) [15] => Array ( [id] => 52 [title] => Electricity Industry Act 2010 [description] => The Act that regulates the New Zealand electricity industry, and under which the Authority operates. ) [16] => Array ( [id] => 29 [title] => Constrained-on compensation [description] => An amount paid to generators if they are required by the system operator to generate during a trading period when the final price is less than the generator’s offer price. The payment is calculated by the clearing manager and is payable by purchasers and the system operator. ) [17] => Array ( [id] => 122 [title] => PDS - pre-dispatch schedule [description] => This schedule is produced by the system operator and includes expected levels of generation, instantaneous reserves, demand and forecast energy and reserve prices. If produced before 13:00 hours, the PDS covers the remaining trading periods of the day. If produced after 13:00 hours, it covers the remaining trading periods of the day and the trading periods of the following day. ) [18] => Array ( [id] => 9 [title] => Asset capability statement [description] => A statement provided to the system operator that outlines the capability and operational limitations of assets during both normal and abnormal conditions on the grid. ) [19] => Array ( [id] => 67 [title] => GIP - grid injection point [description] => A point of connection where electricity flows into the national grid from generating stations. ) [20] => Array ( [id] => 83 [title] => Installation control point [description] => Is known as an ICP ) [21] => Array ( [id] => 131 [title] => Real-time (5-minute) price [description] => The price of wholesale electricity calculated for every five-minute period through each day. ) [22] => Array ( [id] => 93 [title] => MA - market administrator [description] => The market operation service provider responsible for operational and administrative services to the wholesale and retail markets. This function is currently undertaken by the Electricity Authority. ) [23] => Array ( [id] => 104 [title] => Must-run dispatch auction [description] => The must-run dispatch auction allows a generator to bid for the right to offer generation at zero price to ensure it is dispatched. The auction typically runs during periods of low demand (for example, Christmas Day) when generators need to run their plant to fulfil contractual obligations, comply with legal obligations or for cost reasons. ) [24] => Array ( [id] => 146 [title] => SOI - Statement of Intent [description] => The guiding document for a public sector body outlining its objectives, performance targets, and means of delivery against Government policy. ) [25] => Array ( [id] => 42 [title] => Demand-side participants [description] => Participants who modify their usage in a way that reduces consumption in a specific time period or shifts consumption from one time period to another. ) [26] => Array ( [id] => 85 [title] => Intermittent generation [description] => Generation for which the source is intermittent and not easily predicted, for example, wind or wave generation. ) [27] => Array ( [id] => 71 [title] => GUP - grid upgrade plan [description] => Plan to upgrade the high voltage transmission network, or national grid that transmits electricity throughout the country. ) [28] => Array ( [id] => 39 [title] => DA - data administrator [description] => Data administrators gather all metering information, prepare estimates for half-hour metering data, and aggregate metering data for reconciliation. ) [29] => Array ( [id] => 41 [title] => Demand-side initiative [description] => An initiative that encourages or facilitates electricity consumers to modify their usage in a way that reduces consumption in a specific time period or shifts consumption from one time period to another. ) [30] => Array ( [id] => 179 [title] => Participant identifier [description] => A unique 4 letter code assigned to a participant under clause 15.39 that is used to identify the participant,. ) [31] => Array ( [id] => 178 [title] => disclosure information [description] => disclosure information, in relation to a participant, means information that— (a) is about the participant; and (b) is held by the participant; and (c) the participant expects, or ought reasonably to expect, if made available to the public, will have a material impact on prices in the wholesale market ) [32] => Array ( [id] => 161 [title] => Utilities Disputes Ltd [description] => Utilities Disputes Ltd is a separate organisation from the Electricity Authority. It provides consumers with a free and independent dispute resolution service for complaints about their electricity lines or retail company, provided that company is a member. See www.utilitiesdisputes.co.nz ) [33] => Array ( [id] => 118 [title] => Over-frequency reserve [description] => An ancillary service that automatically reduces the level of injection from a generating set to stop an unplanned rise in the frequency. ) [34] => Array ( [id] => 133 [title] => Reconciliation manager [description] => The market operation service provider (currently the New Zealand Stock Exchange) contracted by the Authority to undertake the monthly reconciliation process and take responsibility for reconciling metering data against a register of contracts and passing the data to participants. ) [35] => Array ( [id] => 73 [title] => GXP - grid exit point [description] => A point of connection where electricity flows out of the national grid to local networks or direct consumers. ) [36] => Array ( [id] => 84 [title] => Instantaneous reserve [description] => Generation capacity and interruptible load that is made available to be used in the event of a sudden failure of a generating or transmission facility in order to maintain system frequency at 50 Hertz. Instantaneous reserve is procured based on the size of the single largest contingent event that could occur during a particular trading period. Generators offer instantaneous reserves at the same time as they make energy offers. Fast instantaneous reserve (FIR) is available within six seconds and must be able to operate for one minute. Sustained instantaneous reserve (SIR) is available within 60 seconds and must be available for 15 minutes. ) [37] => Array ( [id] => 30 [title] => Constrained-on prices [description] => Constrained-on compensation is an amount paid to generators, if they are required by the system operator to generate during a trading period when the final price is less than the generator’s offer price. The payment is calculated by the clearing manager and is payable by purchasers and the system operator. ) [38] => Array ( [id] => 44 [title] => Dispatch instruction [description] => An instruction issued by the system operator to generators and ancillary service agents in accordance with the dispatch schedule. ) [39] => Array ( [id] => 72 [title] => GWh - gigawatt hour [description] => One gigawatt hour is equal to one million kilowatt hours. New Zealand’s annual demand is approximately 38,000GWh. ) [40] => Array ( [id] => 28 [title] => Connection contract [description] => The contract between participants and the grid owner to connect to the grid at a point of connection. ) [41] => Array ( [id] => 53 [title] => Embedded generation [description] => A person that owns or operates generating units that inject electricity into a local or embedded network rather than to the national grid. ) [42] => Array ( [id] => 88 [title] => kWh - kilowatt hour [description] => A kilowatt hour is also known as a unit of electricity and is the basis of retail sales and reconciliation of electricity in the market. ) [43] => Array ( [id] => 127 [title] => Prudential security [description] => Electricity can be consumed up to 57 days before payment for it is due. As a result, each purchaser is required to provide prudential security sufficient to cover this period, most commonly in the form of cash or a letter of credit, to cover the risk of not paying for this electricity on the due date. This ensures that generators are paid, even if a purchaser defaults. To ensure that sufficient security is held, the clearing manager monitors current and projected exposure on a daily basis using bids, cleared offers and final prices. ) [44] => Array ( [id] => 105 [title] => MWh - megawatt hour [description] => A megawatt hour is equal to 1,000 kilowatt hours. Megawatt hours are the metering standard unit for the wholesale market. ) [45] => Array ( [id] => 126 [title] => Profiling/profiles [description] => Profiling allows retailers to estimate how much electricity any consumer will use in each half hour by providing a typical consumption ’shape’. ) [46] => Array ( [id] => 113 [title] => One-in-60 dry year [description] => A year in which there is a hydro drought of the severity that can be expected to occur every 60 years. The duration and timing of such an event will determine whether it has implications for security of supply. ) [47] => Array ( [id] => 82 [title] => Information system [description] => The software system required by the Rules to transfer information between participants, especially the uploading of bids and offers. ) [48] => Array ( [id] => 86 [title] => Interruptible load [description] => A type of instantaneous reserve that is provided by load that can be quickly disconnected, for example, hot water heating. ) [49] => Array ( [id] => 38 [title] => Customer switching [description] => Since the introduction of full retail competition to the New Zealand electricity market on 1 April 1999, customers have been able to choose their electricity supplier. Statistics are available on the number of customers who switch supplier and are published each month. ) [50] => Array ( [id] => 45 [title] => Dispatch objective [description] => The system operator has the objective of ensuring that generation meets demand at the least cost to purchasers. ) [51] => Array ( [id] => 25 [title] => COMIT free to air [description] => The internet site that provides a snapshot of the information contained on COMIT, including prices, demand and hydrology. Freely accessible at electricityinfo.co.nz. ) [52] => Array ( [id] => 142 [title] => Service providers [description] => Parties contracted by the Authority to manage the electricity system (system operator) and market services set out in section 5 of the Act. ) [53] => Array ( [id] => 47 [title] => Dispatch schedule [description] => The schedule that the system operator bases dispatch instructions on to achieve the dispatch objective. ) [54] => Array ( [id] => 136 [title] => Reliability event [description] => A reliability event is one where something has gone bang. Some power system asset has broken (with some risk to system security) and there may be lessons to be learned from the experience. ) [55] => Array ( [id] => 62 [title] => Frequency keeping [description] => The frequency of the New Zealand grid is normally maintained at 50 Hertz and is the number of cycles per second. Frequency keeping refers to the process used to keep the frequency of the grid within its normal band. Frequency keeping power stations are used to increase or decrease generation within a set band to ensure that supply equals demand on a second-by-second basis. ) [56] => Array ( [id] => 5 [title] => Ancillary service [description] => The system operator contracts individual participants to provide five services essential to maintaining the common quality of electricity supply. These ancillary services are black start, over-frequency reserve, frequency-keeping reserve, instantaneous reserve and voltage support. ) [57] => Array ( [id] => 49 [title] => Domestic consumer [description] => Users of electricity for personal, domestic or household use. This does not include users who purchase electricity for resupply (who are then retailers) or for use in production or manufacture. ) [58] => Array ( [id] => 22 [title] => Code of practice [description] => The codes of practice are those parts of the Code which cover the accuracy of metering installations, requirements for approved test houses, requirements of metering installations, data-logger requirements, requirements for data administrators and profile administration. ) [59] => Array ( [id] => 153 [title] => Station dispatch [description] => Station dispatch allows generators to receive dispatch instructions for an entire station rather than by unit, enabling them to manage unit loadings individually to achieve more efficient operation of the plant. ) [60] => Array ( [id] => 57 [title] => Extended reserve [description] => Extended reserve is a means by which to manage situations where the frequency of New Zealand’s electrical system falls too far below 50 Hertz without the fall being arrested by normal existing reserve products. Extended reserve responds if the frequency continues to fall after the normal reserve products have responded to prevent such a drop in frequency that could lead to catastrophic power system failure. Currently the only mechanism available is automatic under-frequency load shedding (AUFLS), which automatically disconnects blocks of load at specified frequency and time settings. ) [61] => Array ( [id] => 21 [title] => Clearing manager [description] => The market operation service provider (currently the New Zealand Stock Exchange) responsible for monitoring prudential security requirements and invoicing and settling electricity and ancillary service payments. ) [62] => Array ( [id] => 163 [title] => Voltage support [description] => The ancillary service that injects reactive power into the system to boost voltage at the point of injection. Specific generation plant is contracted by the system operator to provide this service, when needed. ) [63] => Array ( [id] => 19 [title] => Capacity margin [description] => Winter capacity margin means the difference between a measure of expected capacity and expected demand from 1 April to 31 October between 7am and 10pm, expressed as a MW margin over demand. ) [64] => Array ( [id] => 134 [title] => Reference nodes [description] => The three reference nodes are Benmore, Haywards and Otahuhu. Prices vary throughout the country by half hour, depending on the grid configuration at the time, so the prices at these nodes are considered indicative of electricity prices for the South Island, the lower North Island and the upper North Island respectively. ) [65] => Array ( [id] => 17 [title] => Authority Board [description] => The Board of the Electricity Authority is made up of a chairperson and four to six members who have been recommended for appointment by the Minister of Energy and Resources to oversee the governance, operation and development of New Zealand’s electricity market. ) [66] => Array ( [id] => 43 [title] => Direct consumer [description] => A consumer that purchases electricity from the wholesale (spot) market for its own consumption or a consumer with a grid connection, for example, a large industrial user. ) [67] => Array ( [id] => 125 [title] => Pricing manager [description] => The market operation service provider (currently the New Zealand Stock Exchange, NZX) contracted by the Authority to calculate and publish final prices. ) [68] => Array ( [id] => 155 [title] => System operator [description] => The system operator (currently Transpower) is the market operation service provider responsible for scheduling and dispatching electricity in a manner that avoids fluctuations in frequency or disruption of supply. ) [69] => Array ( [id] => 46 [title] => Dispatch prices [description] => Dispatch prices are forecast prices calculated in the 4 hours before dispatch takes place. Dispatch prices are produced in the schedule of dispatch prices and quantities (SDPQ) and are more accurate than prices from the pre-dispatch schedule (PDS). ) [70] => Array ( [id] => 54 [title] => Emergency event [description] => An emergency event is where there is a persistent shortage situation (weeks or months) and would include rolling outages or supply shortage declarations (both in Part 9 of the Code). ) [71] => Array ( [id] => 132 [title] => Reconciliation [description] => The process of matching the electricity supplied to customers by individual retailers with actual demand at a grid exit point. ) [72] => Array ( [id] => 69 [title] => Grid emergency [description] => A grid emergency occurs when the system operator’s ability to meet its principal performance objective (PPO) obligations is at risk, equipment or people are at risk or the system operator has to take urgent action to restore the PPOs. ) [73] => Array ( [id] => 60 [title] => Forecast price [description] => Forecast prices are calculated from the pre-dispatch schedule (PDS) up to 35 hours ahead of the start of any half-hour period and every 2 hours from then until the start of the specific trading period. ) [74] => Array ( [id] => 130 [title] => Reactive power [description] => Reactive power is the product of the voltage, current and sine of the phase angle and is measured in kilovolt-amps reactive (kVAr). ) [75] => Array ( [id] => 75 [title] => Hedge contract [description] => A financial risk management product or contract for sale and purchase of electricity that protects against price risks associated with the spot price of electricity. It sets a price at which a buyer will purchase a specific quantity of electricity at a specified node for a set period. The buyer pays this price regardless of whether the market price is higher or lower than the set price. Hedge contracts are also known as contracts for differences (CFDs). ) [76] => Array ( [id] => 16 [title] => Block dispatch [description] => Block dispatch allows generators to receive dispatch instructions for a group of stations to be dispatched as a block. This allows them to decide how to implement the instruction within the block to manage their hydro resources efficiently. ) [77] => Array ( [id] => 26 [title] => Common quality [description] => Common quality refers to those processes and technical requirements placed on asset owners and the system operator that impact on power system quality such as the Code requirements for system frequency management, system event management and system voltage management. ) [78] => Array ( [id] => 141 [title] => Scarcity event [description] => A scarcity event is one where the power system didn’t (or nearly didn’t) have enough generation and/ or transmission assets available to meet demand for some short period (hours). ) [79] => Array ( [id] => 106 [title] => National grid [description] => The transmission network owned by State-owned enterprise Transpower that transports high voltage electricity from the major power stations to the local distribution networks and direct-connected consumers, operated by lines companies. ) [80] => Array ( [id] => 20 [title] => Carbon charge [description] => A low-level government tax aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions to meet New Zealand’s international climate-change obligations. ) [81] => Array ( [id] => 56 [title] => Energy margin [description] => Winter energy margin means the difference between the expected amount of energy that can be supplied and expected demand during the period 1 April to 30 September, expressed as a percentage of expected demand. ) [82] => Array ( [id] => 90 [title] => Lines company [description] => A company that owns the lines which transport electricity on local low-voltage networks. They are also called distribution companies or distributors. ) [83] => Array ( [id] => 7 [title] => Appropriation [description] => Money voted by Parliament to fund the operations of a government department or agency. ) [84] => Array ( [id] => 91 [title] => Local network [description] => The lines and substations used by distributors to transport electricity from grid exit points (GXPs) to points of connection with consumers. ) [85] => Array ( [id] => 81 [title] => Infeasibility [description] => An infeasibility occurs when the scheduling pricing and dispatch (SPD) model cannot produce a solution that is physically feasible. When this occurs, the SPD model flags the infeasible solution, and the system operator reconfigures the input information. ) [86] => Array ( [id] => 3 [title] => Active power [description] => Active power, measured in watts (W), is the product of the voltage and the component of current power in phase with the voltage. ) [87] => Array ( [id] => 76 [title] => Hedge market [description] => A market through which hedge contracts are bought and sold. A hedge contract is a financial risk management product or contract for sale and purchase of electricity that shifts the price risks associated with the spot price of electricity. For example, a common hedge contract is a contract for differences (CFDs). CFDs set a price at which a buyer will purchase a specific quantity of electricity at a specified node for a set period. The buyer of the CFD pays this price regardless of whether the spot market price is higher or lower than the set price. ) [88] => Array ( [id] => 177 [title] => Participants [description] => A person, or a person belonging to a class of persons, identified in section 7 of the Electricity Industry Act 2010 as being a participant in the electricity industry. These include generators, Transpower, distributors, retailers, other lines owners, consumers directly connected to the national grid, buyers of electricity from the clearing manager and service providers. ) [89] => Array ( [id] => 112 [title] => Offer stack [description] => The stack generated by ranking, in price order, all the offers to sell electricity to the clearing manager. ) [90] => Array ( [id] => 15 [title] => Black start [description] => Some generators have the ability to black start meaning they can restart their generation plant with no electrical input if the system has blacked out. Generators without this capability require power from the grid to restart their generating plant. ) [91] => Array ( [id] => 139 [title] => RS analysis [description] => Residual supply analysis. This type of analysis is used to assess how much ability generators have to reduce supply and raise price to increase their profits. ) [92] => Array ( [id] => 119 [title] => Participant [description] => A person, or a person belonging to a class of persons, identified in section 7 of the Electricity Industry Act 2010 as being a participant in the electricity industry. These include generators, Transpower, distributors, retailers, other lines owners, consumers directly connected to the national grid, buyers of electricity from the clearing manager and service providers. ) [93] => Array ( [id] => 1 [title] => 1-hour rule [description] => The 1-hour rule means that, without good reason, a generator or purchaser cannot alter a bid or offer within 1 hour of the electricity being dispatched. ) [94] => Array ( [id] => 65 [title] => FTR manager [description] => The FTR manager creates, auctions and allocates financial transmission rights (FTRs). ) [95] => Array ( [id] => 10 [title] => Asset owner [description] => A participant who owns or operates assets used for generating or conveying electricity. ) [96] => Array ( [id] => 33 [title] => Consumption [description] => The electrical energy consumed by a 1,000 watt (1 kilowatt) appliance in an hour is 1 kilowatt hour (kWh). A kilowatt hour is also known as a unit of electricity and is the unit in which retail sales of electricity are measured. ) [97] => Array ( [id] => 48 [title] => Distributor [description] => A company that owns or operates the power lines that transport electricity on local low voltage networks. This term can be used interchangeably with ’distribution company’, ’lines company’ and ’network company’. ) [98] => Array ( [id] => 150 [title] => Spot market [description] => The buying and selling of wholesale electricity is done via a ’pool’ for each half-hour for each grid point of connection, where electricity generators offer electricity to the market and retailers bid to buy electricity. This market is called the spot or physical wholesale market. ) [99] => Array ( [id] => 70 [title] => Grid owner [description] => The State-owned enterprise Transpower, the owner of the high voltage transmission grid, also referred to as the national grid. ) [100] => Array ( [id] => 115 [title] => OTC hedges [description] => Over-the-counter hedges. These are hedges traded off an organised exchange. ) [101] => Array ( [id] => 31 [title] => Constraint [description] => A constraint occurs when a transmission line (or lines) reaches its maximum carrying capacity. When this occurs, the regions on either side of the constraint are considered ’islands’ in price terms. One ’island’ cannot supply any more electricity to the other, meaning demand has to be met by local generation plant. ) [102] => Array ( [id] => 158 [title] => Transpower [description] => The State-owned enterprise that owns the high voltage transmission network (the national grid) and acts as system operator. ) [103] => Array ( [id] => 143 [title] => Settlement [description] => Settlement occurs on the 20th day of the month after trading occurred or if that day is a non-business day, the next business day, or in the event that invoicing information is not available, the day decided by the Authority. The clearing manager operates a clearing house, paying generators in full once all monies are received in cleared funds from purchasers. ) [104] => Array ( [id] => 18 [title] => Capability [description] => Organisation needs in terms of access to leadership, people, culture, relationships, processes and technology, physical assets and structures to efficiently deliver the goods and services required to achieve the results sought—whether those results are set by reference to government policy or by statute. ) [105] => Array ( [id] => 151 [title] => Spot price [description] => The half-hour price of wholesale (’spot’) market electricity published by the pricing manager. ) [106] => Array ( [id] => 61 [title] => Frequency [description] => The frequency of the New Zealand grid is normally maintained at 50 hertz (Hz) frequency and is the number of cycles per second. ) [107] => Array ( [id] => 66 [title] => Generator [description] => An organisation that owns or operates generating units that inject electricity into a network. ) [108] => Array ( [id] => 128 [title] => Purchaser [description] => A company that buys electricity from the wholesale (spot) market. ) [109] => Array ( [id] => 13 [title] => Authority [description] => Electricity Authority. ) [110] => Array ( [id] => 181 [title] => Consumers [description] => Any person who is supplied with electricity other than for resupply. ) [111] => Array ( [id] => 135 [title] => Registry [description] => The database that identifies every point of electricity connection using an installation control point (ICP) reference, enabling energy flows between retailers to be reconciled. The registry also informs retailers when a customer switches supplier. ) [112] => Array ( [id] => 138 [title] => Retailer [description] => A company that sells electricity to customers. ) [113] => Array ( [id] => 74 [title] => Haywards [description] => The location on the national grid at which the HVDC link is connected to the North Island. Prices at the Haywards node, located in the Hutt Valley, give a good indication of prices across the lower half of the North Island. Haywards is one of the three key reference nodes, the others being Benmore and Otahuhu. ) [114] => Array ( [id] => 32 [title] => Consumer [description] => Any person who is supplied with electricity other than for resupply. ) [115] => Array ( [id] => 37 [title] => Customer [description] => A person who has agreed to purchase electricity from a retailer at a specific point (NSP or ICP), for example, a domestic consumer. ) [116] => Array ( [id] => 116 [title] => Outcome [description] => Means a state or condition of society, the economy or the environment and includes a change in that state or condition. (Definition from section 2(1) of the Public Finance Act 1989.) ) [117] => Array ( [id] => 117 [title] => Outputs [description] => Means the goods or services that are supplied by a Crown entity; but does not include goods and services that are produced for purchase or consumption solely within the Crown entity group. (Definition from section 136(1) of the Crown Entities Act 2004.) ) [118] => Array ( [id] => 107 [title] => Network [description] => The national grid, a local network or an embedded network. ) [119] => Array ( [id] => 40 [title] => Default [description] => Failure of a purchaser to pay for electricity purchased in cleared funds by 16:00 hours on the 20th day of the calendar month following the billing period. In the event of a default, the money that is unpaid is pro-rated among generators. ) [120] => Array ( [id] => 80 [title] => Impacts [description] => The contribution made to an outcome by a specified set of outputs, or actions, or both. (Definition from section 2(1) of the Public Finance Act 1989.) ) [121] => Array ( [id] => 165 [title] => Wash-up [description] => The monthly procedure that revises an invoice where the information it was calculated on has been amended. ) [122] => Array ( [id] => 14 [title] => Benmore [description] => Benmore power station injects electricity at the southern end of the HVDC, and half-hourly prices at the Benmore node generally reflect the half-hourly prices across the South Island. Benmore is one of the three key reference nodes, along with Haywards and Otahuhu. ) [123] => Array ( [id] => 137 [title] => Reserve [description] => Spare generating capacity or load reductions used to recover frequency immediately following a sudden generation or transmission line outage. ) [124] => Array ( [id] => 114 [title] => Otahuhu [description] => Prices at the Otahuhu node are used as an indicator of prices in the upper North Island. Otahuhu is one of the three key reference nodes, the others being Haywards and Benmore. ) [125] => Array ( [id] => 92 [title] => Losses [description] => As electricity travels through the national grid, a proportion of energy is lost as heat due to the resistance in the lines. The greater the distance the electricity travels and the lower the voltage of the line, the higher the losses are. ) [126] => Array ( [id] => 98 [title] => Meter [description] => Equipment that measures and records electricity volumes conveyed through a point of connection. ) [127] => Array ( [id] => 103 [title] => MUoSA [description] => Model use-of-system agreement. ) [128] => Array ( [id] => 6 [title] => APERF [description] => Asia Pacific Energy Regulatory Forum. ) [129] => Array ( [id] => 148 [title] => SOSPA [description] => The system operator service provider agreement is the contract the Authority has with Transpower to operate the electricity system to schedule and dispatch electricity in real-time. ) [130] => Array ( [id] => 24 [title] => COMIT [description] => The internet-based system that provides pricing and trading information for the New Zealand electricity market. COMIT is available by subscription from the provider, the New Zealand Sock Exchange (NZX). ) [131] => Array ( [id] => 8 [title] => Asset [description] => Equipment or plant that is part of or connected to the grid. ) [132] => Array ( [id] => 109 [title] => NZIER [description] => New Zealand Institute of Economic Research. ) [133] => Array ( [id] => 120 [title] => Payee [description] => Any participant who sells electricity to the clearing manager or who is paid for ancillary services, administrative costs and FTR settlements. ) [134] => Array ( [id] => 12 [title] => AUFLS [description] => Automatic under-frequency load shedding. AUFLS is a form of extended reserve, used alongside instantaneous reserve to manage under-frequency events, such as an unexpected outage or the loss of multiple generating units, to limit the fall in frequency to within the limits set out in the Code. ) [135] => Array ( [id] => 121 [title] => Payer [description] => Any participant who purchases electricity from the clearing manager or who pays for ancillary services. ) [136] => Array ( [id] => 124 [title] => Price [description] => The New Zealand electricity market uses four types of prices - forecast, dispatch, final and real-time prices. ) [137] => Array ( [id] => 111 [title] => Offer [description] => An offer to sell a quantity of electricity at a specified price. ) [138] => Array ( [id] => 162 [title] => UTS [description] => Undesirable trading situation. A UTS arises when there is a threat to orderly trading on the wholesale market or settlement that cannot otherwise be resolved satisfactorily under the Code. ) [139] => Array ( [id] => 166 [title] => WITS [description] => Wholesale information and trading system. ) [140] => Array ( [id] => 102 [title] => MOSP [description] => Market operation service providers. ) [141] => Array ( [id] => 68 [title] => Grid [description] => The high voltage electricity network, provided by State-owned enterprise Transpower that transmits electricity over more than 12,000km of transmission lines throughout New Zealand from generators to distributors and major industrial users. ) [142] => Array ( [id] => 89 [title] => Levy [description] => The charge on the electricity industry that funds the Authority. ) [143] => Array ( [id] => 58 [title] => FIR [description] => Fast instantaneous reserve. A type of instantaneous reserve that is available within six seconds of an unexpected generator or transmission outage. (Also see instantaneous reserve and SIR.) ) [144] => Array ( [id] => 51 [title] => EIEP [description] => Electricity information exchange protocols (EIEPs) provide a set of cost-effective standardised formats for business-to-business information exchanges between electricity industry participants. ) [145] => Array ( [id] => 36 [title] => CR X [description] => Concentration Ratio (CR) of the top X number of generation/retailer companies (gentailers). The CR measures the sum of the market shares for the largest retailers—a higher number indicates a more concentrated market. For example, CR4 is the sum of the market shares for the top four parent retail companies. ) [146] => Array ( [id] => 50 [title] => DSBF [description] => Demand-side bidding and forecasting. ) [147] => Array ( [id] => 97 [title] => MBIE [description] => Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. MBIE is the policy adviser to Ministers on energy matters. MBIE also acts as monitor on behalf of the Minister of Energy and Resources regarding the Electricity Authority. ) [148] => Array ( [id] => 23 [title] => Code [description] => Electricity Industry Participation Code 2010. ) [149] => Array ( [id] => 159 [title] => UOI [description] => Unmatched open interest. UOI is an important measure of liquidity in the hedge market because it directly measures the volume of ‘live’ contracts on the exchange and indicates how useful the mechanism is to market participants. Higher UOI figures demonstrate more ‘skin in the game’ and provide more confidence about forward electricity prices. ) [150] => Array ( [id] => 55 [title] => EMI [description] => Electricity market information website: www.emi.ea.govt.nz ) [151] => Array ( [id] => 110 [title] => NZX [description] => The New Zealand stock exchange. ) [152] => Array ( [id] => 157 [title] => TPM [description] => Transmission pricing methodology. ) [153] => Array ( [id] => 4 [title] => AMI [description] => Advanced metering interface. ) [154] => Array ( [id] => 2 [title] => Act [description] => The relevant Act. available from NZLegsilation ) [155] => Array ( [id] => 123 [title] => PIF [description] => Performance Improvement Framework. ) [156] => Array ( [id] => 129 [title] => RAG [description] => Retail Advisory Group. ) [157] => Array ( [id] => 34 [title] => CPI [description] => Consumer Price Index. ) [158] => Array ( [id] => 164 [title] => WAG [description] => Wholesale Advisory Group. ) [159] => Array ( [id] => 175 [title] => POC [description] => Point of connection ) [160] => Array ( [id] => 59 [title] => FKC [description] => Frequency keeping control. ) [161] => Array ( [id] => 176 [title] => NSP [description] => Network supply point ) [162] => Array ( [id] => 35 [title] => CRE [description] => Refers to the competition, reliability and efficiency limbs of our statutory objective in section 15 of the Act. ) [163] => Array ( [id] => 101 [title] => MFM [description] => Market facilitation measures. These are actions that we can take short of amending the Code or recommending changes to regulations. This can include discussion with participants, education programmes, publication of guidelines and publication of model agreements. ) [164] => Array ( [id] => 145 [title] => SME [description] => Small and medium-sized enterprises. ) [165] => Array ( [id] => 144 [title] => SIR [description] => Sustained instantaneous reserve. A type of instantaneous reserve that is available within 60 seconds and must be available for 15 minutes. (Also see instantaneous reserve and FIR.) ) [166] => Array ( [id] => 100 [title] => MFK [description] => Multiple frequency keepers. ) [167] => Array ( [id] => 149 [title] => SPE [description] => Statement of performance expectations. ) [168] => Array ( [id] => 77 [title] => HHI [description] => Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). HHI is a measure of market concentration and the relationship with competition occurs because less concentrated markets are likely to be more competitive. It is calculated as the sum of the squares of the market share of all participants. ) [169] => Array ( [id] => 152 [title] => SRC [description] => Security and Reliability Council. ) [170] => Array ( [id] => 79 [title] => ICP [description] => An Installation Control Point is a physical point of connection on a local network or an embedded network that the distributor nominates as the point at which a retailer will be deemed to supply electricity to a consumer. Each ICP is assigned an ICP identifier, which has the attributes set out in clauses 1 to 6 of Schedule 11.1 of the Code. ) [171] => Array ( [id] => 11 [title] => ASX [description] => Australian Securities Exchange. ) [172] => Array ( [id] => 167 [title] => CM [description] => Clearing Manager ) )
The industry lobby group representing major electricity users.
The agreement that, until 1 March 2004, governed common quality standards.
The agreement that, until 1 March 2004, governed all aspects of the metering, registry and reconciliation process under bilateral trading arrangements.
Jade Software Corporation NZ Ltd is the service provider contracted by the Authority to manage the registry database.
The HVDC link is the high voltage transmission cable that transports electricity in both directions between the North and South Islands.
An ancillary service that keeps the frequency of the grid within its normal band. The frequency-keeping station increases or decreases generation within a set band to ensure that supply equals demand on a second-by-second basis.
A financial risk management product that protects against price risks arising from transmission losses and constraints.
Components of the Authority’s statutory objective.
The multi-party trading arrangement under which, until 1 March 2004, the majority of New Zealand’s wholesale electricity was bought and sold.
There are eight market operation service providers engaged in the operation of the electricity market. The Authority performs the role of market administrator and contracts other parties to provide the remaining seven services: system operator, reconciliation manager, information system provider, clearing manager, FTR manager, pricing manager, registry.
The systems used by networks to collect and display information on how their system is operating on a moment-by-moment basis.
The organisation that represents the interests of the electricity lines companies.
The Electricity Commission published statements of opportunities (SOO) to enable the identification of potential opportunities for efficient management of the grid, including investment in upgrades and in transmission alternatives. The most recent edition of the SOO was published in 2010. Publication ceased at the time the Electricity Commission was disestablished.
Structure, conduct and performance is an organising framework for thinking about influence on market performance. It starts from the idea that the structure of the market determines the conduct of participants. This conduct drives outcomes. In the context of competition, it follows that the more competitive the structure, the more competitive the conduct of participants and the more efficient their performance. This is a useful framework for considering reliability and efficiency because it underscores the need to take account of the context in which industry participants conduct themselves as well as the outcomes that their conduct produces. The SCP framework has the benefit of emphasising that outcomes are a function of a range of related influences and actions and thus no single measure provides definitive information on market performance.
Agreements that cover retailers’ arrangements with distributors for local distribution services. These can be interposed or conveyance agreements.
The Act that regulates the New Zealand electricity industry, and under which the Authority operates.
An amount paid to generators if they are required by the system operator to generate during a trading period when the final price is less than the generator’s offer price. The payment is calculated by the clearing manager and is payable by purchasers and the system operator.
This schedule is produced by the system operator and includes expected levels of generation, instantaneous reserves, demand and forecast energy and reserve prices. If produced before 13:00 hours, the PDS covers the remaining trading periods of the day. If produced after 13:00 hours, it covers the remaining trading periods of the day and the trading periods of the following day.
A statement provided to the system operator that outlines the capability and operational limitations of assets during both normal and abnormal conditions on the grid.
A point of connection where electricity flows into the national grid from generating stations.
Is known as an ICP
The price of wholesale electricity calculated for every five-minute period through each day.
The market operation service provider responsible for operational and administrative services to the wholesale and retail markets. This function is currently undertaken by the Electricity Authority.
The must-run dispatch auction allows a generator to bid for the right to offer generation at zero price to ensure it is dispatched. The auction typically runs during periods of low demand (for example, Christmas Day) when generators need to run their plant to fulfil contractual obligations, comply with legal obligations or for cost reasons.
The guiding document for a public sector body outlining its objectives, performance targets, and means of delivery against Government policy.
Participants who modify their usage in a way that reduces consumption in a specific time period or shifts consumption from one time period to another.
Generation for which the source is intermittent and not easily predicted, for example, wind or wave generation.
Plan to upgrade the high voltage transmission network, or national grid that transmits electricity throughout the country.
Data administrators gather all metering information, prepare estimates for half-hour metering data, and aggregate metering data for reconciliation.
An initiative that encourages or facilitates electricity consumers to modify their usage in a way that reduces consumption in a specific time period or shifts consumption from one time period to another.
A unique 4 letter code assigned to a participant under clause 15.39 that is used to identify the participant,.
disclosure information, in relation to a participant, means information that— (a) is about the participant; and (b) is held by the participant; and (c) the participant expects, or ought reasonably to expect, if made available to the public, will have a material impact on prices in the wholesale market
Utilities Disputes Ltd is a separate organisation from the Electricity Authority. It provides consumers with a free and independent dispute resolution service for complaints about their electricity lines or retail company, provided that company is a member. See www.utilitiesdisputes.co.nz
An ancillary service that automatically reduces the level of injection from a generating set to stop an unplanned rise in the frequency.
The market operation service provider (currently the New Zealand Stock Exchange) contracted by the Authority to undertake the monthly reconciliation process and take responsibility for reconciling metering data against a register of contracts and passing the data to participants.
A point of connection where electricity flows out of the national grid to local networks or direct consumers.
Generation capacity and interruptible load that is made available to be used in the event of a sudden failure of a generating or transmission facility in order to maintain system frequency at 50 Hertz. Instantaneous reserve is procured based on the size of the single largest contingent event that could occur during a particular trading period. Generators offer instantaneous reserves at the same time as they make energy offers. Fast instantaneous reserve (FIR) is available within six seconds and must be able to operate for one minute. Sustained instantaneous reserve (SIR) is available within 60 seconds and must be available for 15 minutes.
Constrained-on compensation is an amount paid to generators, if they are required by the system operator to generate during a trading period when the final price is less than the generator’s offer price. The payment is calculated by the clearing manager and is payable by purchasers and the system operator.
An instruction issued by the system operator to generators and ancillary service agents in accordance with the dispatch schedule.
One gigawatt hour is equal to one million kilowatt hours. New Zealand’s annual demand is approximately 38,000GWh.
The contract between participants and the grid owner to connect to the grid at a point of connection.
A person that owns or operates generating units that inject electricity into a local or embedded network rather than to the national grid.
A kilowatt hour is also known as a unit of electricity and is the basis of retail sales and reconciliation of electricity in the market.
Electricity can be consumed up to 57 days before payment for it is due. As a result, each purchaser is required to provide prudential security sufficient to cover this period, most commonly in the form of cash or a letter of credit, to cover the risk of not paying for this electricity on the due date. This ensures that generators are paid, even if a purchaser defaults. To ensure that sufficient security is held, the clearing manager monitors current and projected exposure on a daily basis using bids, cleared offers and final prices.
A megawatt hour is equal to 1,000 kilowatt hours. Megawatt hours are the metering standard unit for the wholesale market.
Profiling allows retailers to estimate how much electricity any consumer will use in each half hour by providing a typical consumption ’shape’.
A year in which there is a hydro drought of the severity that can be expected to occur every 60 years. The duration and timing of such an event will determine whether it has implications for security of supply.
The software system required by the Rules to transfer information between participants, especially the uploading of bids and offers.
A type of instantaneous reserve that is provided by load that can be quickly disconnected, for example, hot water heating.
Since the introduction of full retail competition to the New Zealand electricity market on 1 April 1999, customers have been able to choose their electricity supplier. Statistics are available on the number of customers who switch supplier and are published each month.
The system operator has the objective of ensuring that generation meets demand at the least cost to purchasers.
The internet site that provides a snapshot of the information contained on COMIT, including prices, demand and hydrology. Freely accessible at electricityinfo.co.nz.
Parties contracted by the Authority to manage the electricity system (system operator) and market services set out in section 5 of the Act.
The schedule that the system operator bases dispatch instructions on to achieve the dispatch objective.
A reliability event is one where something has gone bang. Some power system asset has broken (with some risk to system security) and there may be lessons to be learned from the experience.
The frequency of the New Zealand grid is normally maintained at 50 Hertz and is the number of cycles per second. Frequency keeping refers to the process used to keep the frequency of the grid within its normal band. Frequency keeping power stations are used to increase or decrease generation within a set band to ensure that supply equals demand on a second-by-second basis.
The system operator contracts individual participants to provide five services essential to maintaining the common quality of electricity supply. These ancillary services are black start, over-frequency reserve, frequency-keeping reserve, instantaneous reserve and voltage support.
Users of electricity for personal, domestic or household use. This does not include users who purchase electricity for resupply (who are then retailers) or for use in production or manufacture.
The codes of practice are those parts of the Code which cover the accuracy of metering installations, requirements for approved test houses, requirements of metering installations, data-logger requirements, requirements for data administrators and profile administration.
Station dispatch allows generators to receive dispatch instructions for an entire station rather than by unit, enabling them to manage unit loadings individually to achieve more efficient operation of the plant.
Extended reserve is a means by which to manage situations where the frequency of New Zealand’s electrical system falls too far below 50 Hertz without the fall being arrested by normal existing reserve products. Extended reserve responds if the frequency continues to fall after the normal reserve products have responded to prevent such a drop in frequency that could lead to catastrophic power system failure. Currently the only mechanism available is automatic under-frequency load shedding (AUFLS), which automatically disconnects blocks of load at specified frequency and time settings.
The market operation service provider (currently the New Zealand Stock Exchange) responsible for monitoring prudential security requirements and invoicing and settling electricity and ancillary service payments.
The ancillary service that injects reactive power into the system to boost voltage at the point of injection. Specific generation plant is contracted by the system operator to provide this service, when needed.
Winter capacity margin means the difference between a measure of expected capacity and expected demand from 1 April to 31 October between 7am and 10pm, expressed as a MW margin over demand.
The three reference nodes are Benmore, Haywards and Otahuhu. Prices vary throughout the country by half hour, depending on the grid configuration at the time, so the prices at these nodes are considered indicative of electricity prices for the South Island, the lower North Island and the upper North Island respectively.
The Board of the Electricity Authority is made up of a chairperson and four to six members who have been recommended for appointment by the Minister of Energy and Resources to oversee the governance, operation and development of New Zealand’s electricity market.
A consumer that purchases electricity from the wholesale (spot) market for its own consumption or a consumer with a grid connection, for example, a large industrial user.
The market operation service provider (currently the New Zealand Stock Exchange, NZX) contracted by the Authority to calculate and publish final prices.
The system operator (currently Transpower) is the market operation service provider responsible for scheduling and dispatching electricity in a manner that avoids fluctuations in frequency or disruption of supply.
Dispatch prices are forecast prices calculated in the 4 hours before dispatch takes place. Dispatch prices are produced in the schedule of dispatch prices and quantities (SDPQ) and are more accurate than prices from the pre-dispatch schedule (PDS).
An emergency event is where there is a persistent shortage situation (weeks or months) and would include rolling outages or supply shortage declarations (both in Part 9 of the Code).
The process of matching the electricity supplied to customers by individual retailers with actual demand at a grid exit point.
A grid emergency occurs when the system operator’s ability to meet its principal performance objective (PPO) obligations is at risk, equipment or people are at risk or the system operator has to take urgent action to restore the PPOs.
Forecast prices are calculated from the pre-dispatch schedule (PDS) up to 35 hours ahead of the start of any half-hour period and every 2 hours from then until the start of the specific trading period.
Reactive power is the product of the voltage, current and sine of the phase angle and is measured in kilovolt-amps reactive (kVAr).
A financial risk management product or contract for sale and purchase of electricity that protects against price risks associated with the spot price of electricity. It sets a price at which a buyer will purchase a specific quantity of electricity at a specified node for a set period. The buyer pays this price regardless of whether the market price is higher or lower than the set price. Hedge contracts are also known as contracts for differences (CFDs).
Block dispatch allows generators to receive dispatch instructions for a group of stations to be dispatched as a block. This allows them to decide how to implement the instruction within the block to manage their hydro resources efficiently.
Common quality refers to those processes and technical requirements placed on asset owners and the system operator that impact on power system quality such as the Code requirements for system frequency management, system event management and system voltage management.
A scarcity event is one where the power system didn’t (or nearly didn’t) have enough generation and/ or transmission assets available to meet demand for some short period (hours).
The transmission network owned by State-owned enterprise Transpower that transports high voltage electricity from the major power stations to the local distribution networks and direct-connected consumers, operated by lines companies.
A low-level government tax aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions to meet New Zealand’s international climate-change obligations.
Winter energy margin means the difference between the expected amount of energy that can be supplied and expected demand during the period 1 April to 30 September, expressed as a percentage of expected demand.
A company that owns the lines which transport electricity on local low-voltage networks. They are also called distribution companies or distributors.
Money voted by Parliament to fund the operations of a government department or agency.
The lines and substations used by distributors to transport electricity from grid exit points (GXPs) to points of connection with consumers.
An infeasibility occurs when the scheduling pricing and dispatch (SPD) model cannot produce a solution that is physically feasible. When this occurs, the SPD model flags the infeasible solution, and the system operator reconfigures the input information.
Active power, measured in watts (W), is the product of the voltage and the component of current power in phase with the voltage.
A market through which hedge contracts are bought and sold. A hedge contract is a financial risk management product or contract for sale and purchase of electricity that shifts the price risks associated with the spot price of electricity. For example, a common hedge contract is a contract for differences (CFDs). CFDs set a price at which a buyer will purchase a specific quantity of electricity at a specified node for a set period. The buyer of the CFD pays this price regardless of whether the spot market price is higher or lower than the set price.
A person, or a person belonging to a class of persons, identified in section 7 of the Electricity Industry Act 2010 as being a participant in the electricity industry. These include generators, Transpower, distributors, retailers, other lines owners, consumers directly connected to the national grid, buyers of electricity from the clearing manager and service providers.
The stack generated by ranking, in price order, all the offers to sell electricity to the clearing manager.
Some generators have the ability to black start meaning they can restart their generation plant with no electrical input if the system has blacked out. Generators without this capability require power from the grid to restart their generating plant.
Residual supply analysis. This type of analysis is used to assess how much ability generators have to reduce supply and raise price to increase their profits.
A person, or a person belonging to a class of persons, identified in section 7 of the Electricity Industry Act 2010 as being a participant in the electricity industry. These include generators, Transpower, distributors, retailers, other lines owners, consumers directly connected to the national grid, buyers of electricity from the clearing manager and service providers.
The 1-hour rule means that, without good reason, a generator or purchaser cannot alter a bid or offer within 1 hour of the electricity being dispatched.
The FTR manager creates, auctions and allocates financial transmission rights (FTRs).
A participant who owns or operates assets used for generating or conveying electricity.
The electrical energy consumed by a 1,000 watt (1 kilowatt) appliance in an hour is 1 kilowatt hour (kWh). A kilowatt hour is also known as a unit of electricity and is the unit in which retail sales of electricity are measured.
A company that owns or operates the power lines that transport electricity on local low voltage networks. This term can be used interchangeably with ’distribution company’, ’lines company’ and ’network company’.
The buying and selling of wholesale electricity is done via a ’pool’ for each half-hour for each grid point of connection, where electricity generators offer electricity to the market and retailers bid to buy electricity. This market is called the spot or physical wholesale market.
The State-owned enterprise Transpower, the owner of the high voltage transmission grid, also referred to as the national grid.
Over-the-counter hedges. These are hedges traded off an organised exchange.
A constraint occurs when a transmission line (or lines) reaches its maximum carrying capacity. When this occurs, the regions on either side of the constraint are considered ’islands’ in price terms. One ’island’ cannot supply any more electricity to the other, meaning demand has to be met by local generation plant.
The State-owned enterprise that owns the high voltage transmission network (the national grid) and acts as system operator.
Settlement occurs on the 20th day of the month after trading occurred or if that day is a non-business day, the next business day, or in the event that invoicing information is not available, the day decided by the Authority. The clearing manager operates a clearing house, paying generators in full once all monies are received in cleared funds from purchasers.
Organisation needs in terms of access to leadership, people, culture, relationships, processes and technology, physical assets and structures to efficiently deliver the goods and services required to achieve the results sought—whether those results are set by reference to government policy or by statute.
The half-hour price of wholesale (’spot’) market electricity published by the pricing manager.
The frequency of the New Zealand grid is normally maintained at 50 hertz (Hz) frequency and is the number of cycles per second.
An organisation that owns or operates generating units that inject electricity into a network.
A company that buys electricity from the wholesale (spot) market.
Electricity Authority.
Any person who is supplied with electricity other than for resupply.
The database that identifies every point of electricity connection using an installation control point (ICP) reference, enabling energy flows between retailers to be reconciled. The registry also informs retailers when a customer switches supplier.
A company that sells electricity to customers.
The location on the national grid at which the HVDC link is connected to the North Island. Prices at the Haywards node, located in the Hutt Valley, give a good indication of prices across the lower half of the North Island. Haywards is one of the three key reference nodes, the others being Benmore and Otahuhu.
Any person who is supplied with electricity other than for resupply.
A person who has agreed to purchase electricity from a retailer at a specific point (NSP or ICP), for example, a domestic consumer.
Means a state or condition of society, the economy or the environment and includes a change in that state or condition. (Definition from section 2(1) of the Public Finance Act 1989.)
Means the goods or services that are supplied by a Crown entity; but does not include goods and services that are produced for purchase or consumption solely within the Crown entity group. (Definition from section 136(1) of the Crown Entities Act 2004.)
The national grid, a local network or an embedded network.
Failure of a purchaser to pay for electricity purchased in cleared funds by 16:00 hours on the 20th day of the calendar month following the billing period. In the event of a default, the money that is unpaid is pro-rated among generators.
The contribution made to an outcome by a specified set of outputs, or actions, or both. (Definition from section 2(1) of the Public Finance Act 1989.)
The monthly procedure that revises an invoice where the information it was calculated on has been amended.
Benmore power station injects electricity at the southern end of the HVDC, and half-hourly prices at the Benmore node generally reflect the half-hourly prices across the South Island. Benmore is one of the three key reference nodes, along with Haywards and Otahuhu.
Spare generating capacity or load reductions used to recover frequency immediately following a sudden generation or transmission line outage.
Prices at the Otahuhu node are used as an indicator of prices in the upper North Island. Otahuhu is one of the three key reference nodes, the others being Haywards and Benmore.
As electricity travels through the national grid, a proportion of energy is lost as heat due to the resistance in the lines. The greater the distance the electricity travels and the lower the voltage of the line, the higher the losses are.
Equipment that measures and records electricity volumes conveyed through a point of connection.
Model use-of-system agreement.
Asia Pacific Energy Regulatory Forum.
The system operator service provider agreement is the contract the Authority has with Transpower to operate the electricity system to schedule and dispatch electricity in real-time.
The internet-based system that provides pricing and trading information for the New Zealand electricity market. COMIT is available by subscription from the provider, the New Zealand Sock Exchange (NZX).
Equipment or plant that is part of or connected to the grid.
New Zealand Institute of Economic Research.
Any participant who sells electricity to the clearing manager or who is paid for ancillary services, administrative costs and FTR settlements.
Automatic under-frequency load shedding. AUFLS is a form of extended reserve, used alongside instantaneous reserve to manage under-frequency events, such as an unexpected outage or the loss of multiple generating units, to limit the fall in frequency to within the limits set out in the Code.
Any participant who purchases electricity from the clearing manager or who pays for ancillary services.
The New Zealand electricity market uses four types of prices - forecast, dispatch, final and real-time prices.
An offer to sell a quantity of electricity at a specified price.
Undesirable trading situation. A UTS arises when there is a threat to orderly trading on the wholesale market or settlement that cannot otherwise be resolved satisfactorily under the Code.
Wholesale information and trading system.
Market operation service providers.
The high voltage electricity network, provided by State-owned enterprise Transpower that transmits electricity over more than 12,000km of transmission lines throughout New Zealand from generators to distributors and major industrial users.
The charge on the electricity industry that funds the Authority.
Fast instantaneous reserve. A type of instantaneous reserve that is available within six seconds of an unexpected generator or transmission outage. (Also see instantaneous reserve and SIR.)
Electricity information exchange protocols (EIEPs) provide a set of cost-effective standardised formats for business-to-business information exchanges between electricity industry participants.
Concentration Ratio (CR) of the top X number of generation/retailer companies (gentailers). The CR measures the sum of the market shares for the largest retailers—a higher number indicates a more concentrated market. For example, CR4 is the sum of the market shares for the top four parent retail companies.
Demand-side bidding and forecasting.
Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. MBIE is the policy adviser to Ministers on energy matters. MBIE also acts as monitor on behalf of the Minister of Energy and Resources regarding the Electricity Authority.
Electricity Industry Participation Code 2010.
Unmatched open interest. UOI is an important measure of liquidity in the hedge market because it directly measures the volume of ‘live’ contracts on the exchange and indicates how useful the mechanism is to market participants. Higher UOI figures demonstrate more ‘skin in the game’ and provide more confidence about forward electricity prices.
Electricity market information website: www.emi.ea.govt.nz
The New Zealand stock exchange.
Transmission pricing methodology.
Advanced metering interface.
The relevant Act. available from NZLegsilation
Performance Improvement Framework.
Retail Advisory Group.
Consumer Price Index.
Wholesale Advisory Group.
Point of connection
Frequency keeping control.
Network supply point
Refers to the competition, reliability and efficiency limbs of our statutory objective in section 15 of the Act.
Market facilitation measures. These are actions that we can take short of amending the Code or recommending changes to regulations. This can include discussion with participants, education programmes, publication of guidelines and publication of model agreements.
Small and medium-sized enterprises.
Sustained instantaneous reserve. A type of instantaneous reserve that is available within 60 seconds and must be available for 15 minutes. (Also see instantaneous reserve and FIR.)
Multiple frequency keepers.
Statement of performance expectations.
Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). HHI is a measure of market concentration and the relationship with competition occurs because less concentrated markets are likely to be more competitive. It is calculated as the sum of the squares of the market share of all participants.
Security and Reliability Council.
An Installation Control Point is a physical point of connection on a local network or an embedded network that the distributor nominates as the point at which a retailer will be deemed to supply electricity to a consumer. Each ICP is assigned an ICP identifier, which has the attributes set out in clauses 1 to 6 of Schedule 11.1 of the Code.
Australian Securities Exchange.
Clearing Manager

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Disclaimer

This website is currently a work in progress and the content may be inaccurate or out of date. Please do not rely on any information contained on this site. Current information can be found on the Electricity Authority’s (Authority) website.

This web site does not form part of the Code. It is provided for general information only and not as legal advice, and does not establish any legal obligation in itself.

Although the Authority has taken every care in the preparation of the content of this web site the Authority offers no warranty (express or implied) as to the accuracy, completeness, or legality of that content. The Authority and its agents is not liable or responsible to any persons for direct or indirect loss or damage that may result from the action or failure to act by any person in reliance on this web site.

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